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408块火烧驱油注气井腐蚀原因分析及对策

韩霞

腐蚀科学与防护技术

针对408块注气井(408-试1)油、套管的腐蚀特点,通过对火烧驱油注气井油、套管腐蚀产物、腐蚀介质、凝析水量的分析研究,确定火烧驱油注气井油、套管的腐蚀原因一方面是由于高压氧气以及空气中的凝析水造成的,另一方面与油、套管材质的耐蚀性不够有关.通过材质以及防腐涂层的筛选等手段,在目前油管和套管内外防腐涂层、不锈钢油管和套管在国内尚无工程实例的情况下,总结出408块注气井防腐措施,包括:油、套管材质采用相对耐蚀的P110;注气采用干燥洁净的空气.

关键词: 火烧驱油 , gas injection well , anti corrosion countermeasure

家坡铁矿矿井设施腐蚀情况调查分析

董彩常 , 孙金香 , 张波 , 黄桂桥

腐蚀与防护

家坡铁矿设施和设备的腐蚀情况以及影响腐蚀的大气、水和土壤等环境因素进行了分析,得出井下设施和设备腐蚀严重的主要原因为:使用材料耐蚀性低、环境/介质腐蚀性强和防腐蚀措施不力等。

关键词: 铁矿 , 井下设备 , 腐蚀 , 分析

408火烧驱油注气井油套管腐蚀安全评估与防护

龙媛媛张春茂王遂平姬杰杨为刚

腐蚀科学与防护技术

    对胜利油田408火烧驱油注气井油管腐蚀产物进行了X射线衍射分析(XRD)及扫描电镜(SEM)、电子探针元素能谱显微分析(EPMA/EDS.结果表明:上部管柱主要是氧腐蚀;下部腐蚀严重部位为氧加速的酸性垢下腐蚀穿孔.油、套管在目前的生产条件下运行存在较大风险.并给出了相应防护措施.

关键词: 火烧驱油 , gas injection well , cause of corrosion , assessment for corrosion safety , protection meaeare

材料科学进展1993年第7卷分类索引

材料研究学报

金属材抖zr对DZ38LC合金凝固行为和持久性能的影响~................……、............……~.·..·..········……~…李英敖唐亚俊张静华张济山朱耀霄胡壮麒(l)金属材料低温疲劳性能的预测方法·······‘···‘····,···1·····,,·············……,’···················..-……吕宝桐修麟(8)N嘛BZ,5111三维金属玻璃的热稳定性···············?...

关键词:

锌在SO_2污染环境中的腐蚀规律

王振尧 , 逸苹 , 刘寿荣

中国腐蚀与防护学报

锌在SO_2污染环境中的腐蚀规律王振尧,逸苹,刘寿荣(中国科学院金属腐蚀与防护研究所沈阳110015)1前言在我国西南地区,由于地理环境的影响,酸沉降日趋严重.含硫煤燃烧所排放的SO2造成雨水酸化,酸沉降引起的腐蚀问题受到人们关注.因此,在该地区进行材料的腐蚀研究具有重要的现实意义.SO。在高湿条件下对大多数金属和合金有强烈的加速腐蚀作用[1].Sherry等[2-4]就高湿条件下低浓度SO....

关键词: null , Zinc , SO_2 polluted environment

重制汉代司南模型记

戴礼智

金属学报

<正> 1974年,李约瑟教授赞誉《古代中国科学对世界的影响》时,引用17世纪培根(Francis Bacon)曾指出印刷术、火药和指南针的发明,改变了全世界事物的面貌和状态,又从而产生了无数的变化。但据考古学者考证,我国在指南针发明之前,早已有一种指南器,名曰司南。下列文献均有记载: 《韩非子,有度篇》:“故先王立司南以端朝夕”。 《鬼谷子》:“人取玉,必载司南,为其不惑也”。

关键词:

INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEN INDUCED DUCTILE BRITTLE TRANSITION IN 7175 ALUMINUM ALLOY

金属学报(英文版)

桑危牛樱裕桑牵粒裕桑希巍。希啤。龋伲模遥希牵牛巍。桑危模眨茫牛摹。模眨茫裕桑蹋拧。拢遥桑裕裕蹋拧。裕遥粒危樱桑裕桑希巍。桑巍。罚保罚怠。粒蹋眨停桑危眨汀。粒蹋蹋希?##2##3##4##5INVESTIGATIONOFHYDROGENINDUCEDDUCTILEBRITTLETRANSITIONIN7175ALUMINUMALLOY$R.G.Seng:B.JZhong,MG.ZengandP.Geng(DepartmentofMaterialsScierce,ScienceCollege,NorthearsternUniveisity,Shenyang110006,ChinaMaruscriptreceived4September1995inrevisedform20April1996)Abstrac:Effectsofhydrogenonthemechanicalpropertiesofdifferentlyaged7175aluminumalloyswereinvestigatedbyusingcathodicH-permeation,slowstrainratetensionandsoon.Theresultsindicatethatboththeyieldstressandthepercentagereductionofareadecreasewithincreasinghydrogenchargingtime,andthedegreeofreductiondecreasesasagingtimeincreasesforthesamehydrogenchargingtime.Keywords:hydrogeninducedductile-brittletransition,7175aluminumalloy,mechanicalproperty,cathodicH-permeation1.IntroductionForalongtimehydrogenembrittlementproblemwasthoughttobeabsentinhighstrengthaluminiumalloybecausethesolutiondegreeofhydrogeninaluminumatcommontemperatureandpressureisverysmall.However,hydrogenembrittlementphenomenonwasfoundinaluminumalloyduringtheinvestigationofstresscorrosionandcorrosionfatigue[1-5].Therehavebeenonlyafewreportsofhydrogeninducedsofteningandhardening.Inthispaper,theeffectsofhydrogenonmechanicalpropertiesof7175aluminumalloywereinvestigatedbyusingcathodicalchargingwithhydrogenandslowtensiontests.2.ExperimentalProcedureTheexperimentalmaterialwas7175aluminumalloyforgingintheformofa43mminthicknessandwithcomposition(wt%).5.41Zn,2.54Mg.1.49Cu,0.22Cr,0.1Mn.0.1Ti,0.16Fe.0.11Si,balancedbyA1.Alloyplateof1.5mminthicknesswasobtainedbyhot(465℃)andtoldrollingto83%reductioninthickness.Thelongaxisofhydrogenchargedspecimensisalongtherollingdirection.Allspecimensweresolidsolutionedat480℃for70min,followedtyimmediatequenchinginwaterandthenagedat140℃for6h(A),16h(B)and98h(C).Thetreatmentof6hiscorrespondingtotheunderagedstate.16hthefirstpeak-agedstateand98hthesecondpeak-agedstate.Thespecimenswerepolishedsuccessivelyusingemerypaperbeforehydrogencharging.Thetensilespecimenswerecathodicallychargedina2NH_2SO_4solutionwithasmallamountofAs_2O_3forpromotinghydrogenabsorption,andwithacurrentdensityof20±1mA/cm ̄2atroomtemperature.ThehydrogencontentanalysiswascarriedoutonanLT-1Amodelionmassmicroprobeafterthesputteringdepthreached8nm.Theioncurrentsofhydrogenandaluminuminvariousagedstateswererecordedunderthesamecondition.ThetensiletestswereperformedonanAG-10TAmodeltestmachinewhichwascontrolledbycomputer.3.ExperimentalResultsTheratioofioncurrentstrengthofhydrogentoaluminumisrelatedtohydrogenconcentrationinhydrogenchargedspecimen.TheresultswereshowninTable1Thehydrogencontentincreaseswiththeincreaseincharingtime.Ofthethreeagedstates,theunderagedspecimenhasthehighesthydrogencontent.Theratioofyieldstrengthofhydrogenchargedandunchargedspecimenschangeswithhydrogenchargingtime,asshowninFig.1Itcanbeseenthattheyieldstrengthofhydrogenchargedspecimendecreasewithincreasinghydrogenchargingtime.Atthesamechargingtime,theyieldstressdecreasestheleastinthesecondpeak-agedstate,anddecreasesthemostintheunderagedstate.Itindicatesthattheunderagedspecimenismostsensitivetohydrogeninducedsoftening,whichisconsistentwiththeresultsofanotherhighstrengthaluminumalloy[6].TherelativechangesoftheradioofreductionofareawithhydrogenchargingtimearesummarizedinFig.2,whereΨ ̄0andΨ ̄Harethepercentagereductionofareaofthesamplewithoutandwithhydrogenchargingrespectively.Theradioofreductionofareareduceswhenhydrogenchargingtimeincreases,andthedecreasingdegreeofreductionofareaincreaseswithincreasingagingtime,ie,,theunderagedstateisthemostsensitivetohydrogenembrittlement.4.DiscussionItisknownfromtheresultsabovethatcathodicalchargingwithhydrogenleadstotheobviousdecreaseinthetensilestrengthandplasticityThisisbecausealargeamountofsolidsolutionhydrogenentersthespecimenintheprocessofhydrogenchargingSolidsolutionhydrogenisliabletoenterthecentreofdislocationundertheactionofdislocationtrap,henceraisingthemovabilityofdislocation.Thereforethedislocationsinhydrogenchargedspecimenmoveeasierthaninunchargedspecimen.soresultinginthereductionofyieldstrength[7].Whendislocationstartstomove,thecrystallatticeresistance(P-Nforce)whichitmustovercomeisgivenby:whereμismodulusofshear,visPoissonratio,aisspanofslipplane,bisatomspanofslipdirection.Moreover.theotherresistanceofdislocationmotionmayarisefromtheelasticinteractionofdislocation,theactionwithtreedislocationandetc.,itcanbeexpressedasfollows:whereαisconstant,XisdislocationspanSotheresistanceofdislocationmotioncanbewrittenasfollows:Becausehydrogenatomsreducetheatombondingstrengthafterhydrogencharging,shearmodulusμdecreasesandresultsinthereductionoff,therebytheyieldstressdecreases.Asthecentreofdislocationistheseriousdistortionzoneoflattice.thestresscanberelaxedafterhydrogenatomstuffing,andthesystemenergydecreases.Thusthecentreofdislocationisastrongtrapofhydrogen[8].Therefore,amovabledislocationcaptureshydrogenandmigratestograinboundaries.phaseboundariesorsurfaceofthespecimen,promotingthecrackiesformationandgrowth,thuscausingthelossofplasticity.Sincethelocalenrichmentofhydrogenisrealizedbydislocationtransporting(inthestageofdeformation),thelargerthereductionofyieldstress.theearlierarehydrogenatomstransportedtotheplaceofenrichment.Inaddition,thedamageofatombondingstrengthinducedbyhydrogenmakesthefracturestressdecrease[9]:whereCHishydrogenconcentration.σ_thisfracturestrengthbeforehydrogenchargingandisfracturestrengthafterhydrogencharging.Eq.(4)showsthatthematerialsmaybefracturedatalowerstraini.e.,brittlefractureoccurs.5.Conclusions(1)Hydrogencontentofdifferentlyagedspecimensincreaseswithincreasinghydrogenchargingtimethecapabilityofthealloytoabsorbhydrogeninunderagedstateisthestrongest.(2)Theyieldstressaswellasthepercentagereductionofareaof7175aluminumalloydecreaseashydrogenchargingtimeincreasesundervariousagedstates.(3)Underagedstateismostsensitivetohydrogeninducedsofteningandhardening.(4)Anexplanationwasofferedforthephenomenonofhydrogeninducedsofteninginthestageofdeformation,andhardeninginthestageoffracture.REFERENCES||1G.KKock,Corrosion35(1979)73.2M.K.TsengandH.LMarcus,Scr.Metall.15(1981)427.3PSFao.M.GaoandR.P.Wei,Scr.Metall.19(1985)265.4R.G.SongandM.K.TsengJ.NortheasternUniversity15(1994)5(inChinese).5R.K.Viswanadham,T.S.sunandJ.A.S.Green,Metall.Trans.11A(1980)85.6J.Liu,M.KTsengandB.R.Liu.NonferrousMiningandMetallrgy5(1989)33(inChinese).7LChen,WXChen,ZHLiuandZ.Q.Hu,InFrocofthe1stNationalConfonAl-LiAlloys(Sheryang.China,1991)p.328(inChinese).8Z.HLiuL.ChenW.XChenY.X.ShaoandZ.Q.Hu,InProc.ofthe1stNationalConfonAl-LiAlloys(Shenyang,China,1991)p.334(inChinese).9R.A.OrianiandF.H.Josephic,ActaMetall.22(1974)1065.##61G.KKock,Corrosion35(1979)73.2M.K.TsengandH.LMarcus,Scr.Metall.15(1981)427.3PSFao.M.GaoandR.P.Wei,Scr.Metall.19(1985)265.4R.G.SongandM.K.TsengJ.NortheasternUniversity15(1994)5(inChinese).5R.K.Viswanadham,T.S.sunandJ.A.S.Green,Metall.Trans.11A(1980)85.6J.Liu,M.KTsengandB.R.Liu.NonferrousMiningandMetallrgy5(1989)33(inChinese).7LChen,WXChen,ZHLiuandZ.Q.Hu,InFrocofthe1stNationalConfonAl-LiAlloys(Sheryang.China,1991)p.328(inChinese).8Z.HLiuL.ChenW.XChenY.X.ShaoandZ.Q.Hu,InProc.ofthe1stNationalConfonAl-LiAlloys(Shenyang,China,1991)p.334(inChinese).9R.A.OrianiandF.H.Josephic,ActaMetall.22(1974)1065.##A##BINVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEN INDUCED DUCTILE BRITTLE TRANSITION IN 7175 ALUMINUM ALLOY$$$$R.G.Seng: B.J Zhong, MG. Zeng and P. Geng(Department of Materials Scierce, Science College,Northearstern Univeisity, Shenyang 110006, China Maruscript received 4 September 1995 in revised form 20 April 1996)Abstrac:Effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of differently aged 7175 aluminum alloys were investigated by using cathodic H-permeation, slow strain rate tension and so on. The results indicate that both the yield stress and the percentage reduction of area decrease with increasing hydrogen charging time, and the degree of reduction decreases as aging time increases for the same hydrogen charging time.

关键词: :hydrogen induced ductile-brittle transition , null , null , null

ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OBSERVATION OF MAGNETRON SPUTTERED ALUMINUM-SILICON ALLOY FILMS

金属学报(英文版)

粒裕希停桑谩。疲希遥茫拧。停桑茫遥希樱茫希校佟。希拢樱牛遥粒裕桑希巍。希啤。停粒牵危牛裕遥希巍。樱校眨裕裕牛遥牛摹。粒蹋眨停桑危眨停樱桑蹋桑茫希巍。粒蹋蹋希佟。疲桑蹋停?##2##3##4##5ATOMICFORCEMICROSCOPYOBSERVATIONOFMAGNETRONSPUTTEREDALUMINUM-SILICONALLOYFILMSJ.W.Wu,J.H.FangandZ.H.Lu(NationalLaboratoryofMoleculeandBiomoleculeElectronics,SoutheastUniversity,Nanjing210096,ChinaManuscriptreceived27October1995)Abstrcat:Twodifferentsurfacemorphologycharacteristicsofmagnetronsputteredaluminumsilicon(Al-Si)alloyfilmsdepositedat0and200℃wereobservedbyatomicforcemicroscopy(AFM).Oneisirregularlyshapedgrainsputtogtheronaplane.TheotherisirregularlyshapedgrainsPiledupinspace.Nanometer-sizedparticleswithheightsfrom1.6to2.9nmwerefirstobserved.Onthebasisoftheseobservationsthegrowthmechanismofmagnetronsputteredfilmsisdiscussed.Keywords:magnetronsputtering,Al-Sialloy,surfacemorphology,atomicforcemicroscopy,filmgrowthmechanism1.IntroductionTheuseofaluminumalloys[1,2],inparticularAl-Si,isacommonfeatureinmanysinglelevelandmultilevelinterconnectionschemesadoptedinthemanufactureofmicroelectronicdevicesbecauseofseveraldesirableproperties.TheAl-Sigrainmorphology(size.geometryanddistributionofgrainsisassociatedwithstepcoverage[3],electromigration[4]andinterconnectsresistivity[5]etc..Thus,characterizationofAl-Sialloysurfacemorphologyisveryimportant,especiallywhenintegratedintensityincreasesandlinewidthsof0.3to0.5μmbecomecommon.Inthepasttwentyyears,theAl-Sialloysurfacemorphologywhichaffectsthereliabilityofmicroelectronicdeviceshasbeenwidelyinvestigatedbyscanningelectronmicroscopy(SEM),transmissionelectronmicroscopy(TEM)etc.[5-7].However,SEMandTEMhavetheirlimitationorinconvenience,forexample,theverticalresolutionofSEMisnothighandTEMneedscomplexsamplepreparation.Recently,anewgrainboundaryetchingmethodwasproposed ̄[8]whichalsoneedstroublesomechemicaletching.Atomicforcemicroscopy(AFM),sinceitsemerging,hasbecomemoreandmoreusefulinphysics,chemistry,materialsscienceandsurfacescience,becauseofitshighresolution,easeofsamplepreparationandrealsurfacetopography.Recently,discussion[9,10]waspresentedonhowAFMwillplayaroleinsemiconductorindustry.Asaresponsetothisdiscussion,weusedAFMtoinvestigateAl-SialloysurfacemorphologyandhaveobtainedsomeresultswhichcannotberevealedbySEMorTEM.ThisindicatesthatAFMisagoodcharacterizationtoolinsemiconductorindustry.2.SamplePreparationInourexperiments,aluminumwith30ppmsiliconwassputteredonsiliconsubstrateinbatchdepositionmodeAllthreefilmswiththicknessof1.6μmweredepositedusinganargonsputteringpressureof4.2×10 ̄-3Pa.TheotherdepositionparametersaredescribedinTable1.Thesubstratewascleanedusingstandardpremetallizationcleaningtechniquespriortofilmdeposition.3.ExperimentalResultsandDiscussionTheAFMmeasurementswereperformedonacommercialsystem(NanoscopeIII,DigitalInstruments,SantaBarbara).Thetipismadeofmicrofabricatedsiliconnitride(Si_3N_4)Itisattachedtoa200μmcantileverwithaforceconstantofabout0.12N/m.Beforethesurfaceofsamplewasexamined.agoodtipwithananometer-sizedprotrusionatitsendwasselectedbeforehand,whichcanbeobtainedbyimagingtheatomicstructureofmicasubstrateandagoldgrid.AtypicaloperatingforcebetweenthetipandAl-Sisamplesurfaceisoftheorderof10 ̄-8Nandallimagesweretakenatroomtemperatureinair.AtypicaltopographicviewoftheAl-SifilmsisshowninFig.1(allimagescansizeis5by5μma,bandcarerespectivelyforsample1,2,and3).FromFig.la,itcanbeseenthatirregularlyshapedgrainstiltinginvaryingdegreespileupinspace,andgroovesamongtheirregularlyshapedgrainsaredifficulttodecideatacertainarea(wedefineitascharacteristicA).Toourknowledge,onreportsonthesurfacemorphologyhavebeenpresentedbefore.InFig1b,however,irregularlyshapedgrainsassembleonaPlaneandgroovesamongtheirregularlyshapedgrainsareeasytodecide(wedefineitascharacteristicB),whichisinagreementwithmanypreviousreports[5-7].InFig.1c,bothcharacteristicA(arrowA)andcharacteristicB(arrowB)wereobserved.IndoingAFMexperiments,weselectedfivedifferentscanareastobeimagedforeachsampleandfoundthatallimagesofeachsamplearerespectivelysimilartoFig.1a,bandc.Also,wenotedthatthesurfaceofinFig.1a.WethinkthatdepositionparameterswillinfluenceAl-Sisurfacemorphology,andthetiltedgrainsmaybesusceptibletomicrocracking.Byreducingthescansizeareato2by2μm(Fig.2aandb).Weobtainedmanyidenticalresultsasdescribedabove,suchasirregularlyshapedgrainsetc.Forthefirsttime,wefoundnanometersizedparticlesonirregularlyshapedgrainsurfacewhichcannotberevealedbySEMbecausethediameterofthesenanoparticlesisabout10nmandtheheightofthesenanoparticlesisintherangeof1.6to2.9nm.Inimaging,wenotedthatrotatingthescandirectionandchangingthescanfrequencydidnotaffectthestructureofthesegrainsasshowninFig.2aandb,rulingoutthepossibilitythatscanninginfluencedtheshapeoftheseparticlesorcausedsomesimilarimagingartifacts.Also,wenotedthatthenanoparticleswerenotobservedontheslopesofthegrooves(Fig.2aandb).Thisphenomenoncanbeexplainedasfollows:thepotentialenergyattheslopeislargerthanthatelsewhere,sotheparticlesseemmorelikelytobedepositedontheseareaswithlowerpotentialenergy.Fig.2c,scansize250by250nm,isazoomtopographicimage(whiteoutlineinb).Itshowsunevendistributionofthenanoparticles.Andtheheightdifferenceofthenanoparticlesindicatesdifferentgrowingspeed.Wethinkbasedonthemorphologyofnanoparticles,thattheheightdifferenceandunevendistributionofthesenanoparticlesshowdifferentgrowingadvantageandindicatethatatomshaveenoughenergytomovetoasuitablegrowingspot.Theenergymaybefromthefollowingsources:surfacetemperaturefluctuation,stressdifferenceorcollisionbetweenhighspeedsputteredatoms.Thesenanoparticlesgoongrowingandformmanyirregularlyshapedgrains.AndtheseirregularlyshapedgrainsfurtherconnecteachotheraccordingtocharacteristicAorB,finallyformingtheAl-Sisurfacemorphology.4.ConclusionWecandrawthefollowingconclusionsfromtheabove.First,theexperimentalresultsshowedthatAFMisapowerfultooltoinvestigatethedetailsofAl-Sisurfacemorphologywhichcangreatlyenrichourknowledgeofthefilmgrowthmechanism.Second,depositionconditionsplayanimportantroleindeterminingtheAl-Sisurfacemorphology.Third,thetwoAl-Sisurfacemorphologycharacteristicsarethatirregularlyshapedgrainsassembleonaplaneandirregularlyshapedgrainstiltinginvaryingdegreespileupinspace.Fourth,forthefirsttime,nanoparticleswereobservedonirregularlyshapedgrainsurfacewhichsuggestedthatthefilmgrowthmechanismwasbyinhomogeneousnucleation.Acknowledgements-BeneficialdiscussionswereheldwithDr.ZhenandMr.Zhu.ThisworkwaspartiallysupportedbytheNationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChina.RFFERENCES||1D.pramanikandA.N.Saxena,SolidStateTechnol.26(1983)127.2D.pramanikandA.N.Saxena,SolidStateTechnol.26(1983)131.3D.pramanikandA.N.Saxena,SolidStateTechnol.33(1990)73.4S.S.IyerandC.Y.Worg,J.Appl.phys.57(1985)4594.5J.F.Smith,SolidStateTechnol.27(1984)135.6D.GerthandD.Katzer,ThinSolidFilm208(1992)67.7R.J.WilsonandB.L.Weiss,ThinSolidFilm207(1991)291.8E.G.Solley,J.H.Linn,R.W.BelcherandM.G.Shlepr,SolidStateTechnol33(1990)409I.SmithandRHowland,SolidStateTechnol.33(1990)53.10L.Peters,SemiconductorInternational16(1993)62.##61D.pramanikandA.N.Saxena,SolidStateTechnol.26(1983)127.2D.pramanikandA.N.Saxena,SolidStateTechnol.26(1983)131.3D.pramanikandA.N.Saxena,SolidStateTechnol.33(1990)73.4S.S.IyerandC.Y.Worg,J.Appl.phys.57(1985)4594.5J.F.Smith,SolidStateTechnol.27(1984)135.6D.GerthandD.Katzer,ThinSolidFilm208(1992)67.7R.J.WilsonandB.L.Weiss,ThinSolidFilm207(1991)291.8E.G.Solley,J.H.Linn,R.W.BelcherandM.G.Shlepr,SolidStateTechnol33(1990)409I.SmithandRHowland,SolidStateTechnol.33(1990)53.10L.Peters,SemiconductorInternational16(1993)62.##A##BATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OBSERVATION OF MAGNETRON SPUTTERED ALUMINUM-SILICON ALLOY FILMS$$$$J.W.Wu,J.H. Fang and Z.H.Lu (National Laboratory of Molecule and Biomolecule Electronics,Southeast University,Nanjing 210096, China Manuscript received 27 October 1995)Abstrcat:Two different surface morphology characteristics of magnetron sputtered aluminumsilicon(Al-Si)alloy films deposited at 0 and 200℃ were observed by atomic force microscopy(AFM).One is irregularly shaped grains put togther on a plane.The other is irregularly shaped grains Piled up in space. Nanometer-sized particles with heights from 1.6 to 2.9 nm were first observed. On the basis of these observations the growth mechanism of magnetron sputtered films is discussed.

关键词: :magnetron sputtering , null , null , null , null

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