Titanium (Ti) nanorods fabricated using selective corrosion of Ti substrate by anodic technology show better biocompatibility with pre-osteoblast cells. The current study investigated the response of the murine pre-osteoblast cell MC3T3-E1 on Ti nanorod topography and untreated Ti surfaces by means of examination of the morphology and osteogenic differentiation responsible for the pre-osteoblast reaction. The morphology of MC3T3-E1 cells was observed using scanning electron microscopy, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured using a colorimetric assay after incubation for 7, 14, and 21 days. The expression of three osteogenic differentiation markers including ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen type 1A1 (COL1A1) and two transcription factors including runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix (Osx) at different time points was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis in both groups. Osx was used to confirm the protein level. The results showed that Ti nanorod surfaces provided prolonged higher levels of ALP activity compared with unmodified Ti surface on the 14th and 21st days. Gene expression analysis of ALP, OCN, and COL1A1 showed significant upregulation with modified nanorod topography after incubation for 14 and 21 days. Osteogenic transcription factors of Runx2 and Osx exhibited changes consistent with the osteogenic differentiation markers, and this may contribute to the persistently active differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in the Ti nanorod group. These results demonstrated that the current nanostructured surface may be considered bioadaptive topography to control cellular behaviors and osteoblast differentiation. The in vivo performance and applicability are further required to investigate osseointegration between implant and host bone in the early stages for prevention of aseptic implant loosening.
The objective of this study was to determine the role of functional groups of silane coupling on bioactive titanium (Ti) surface by electrochemical deposition, and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating, as well as bone cell adhesion and proliferation. Methyl group (—CH3), amino group (—NH2), and epoxy group (—glyph name—C(O)C) were introduced onto the bioactive Ti surface using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with different silane coupling agents as molecular bridges. The effect of the surface functional groups on the growth features of the CaP crystals was analyzed (including chemical compositions, element content, minerals morphology and crystal structure etc.). CH3-terminated SAMs showed a hydrophobic surface and others were hydrophilic by contact angle measurement; NH2-terminated SAMs showed a positive charge and others were negatively charged using zeta-potential measurement. Scanning electron microscopy results confirmed that flower-like structure coatings consisting of various pinpoint-like crystals were formatted by different functional groups of silane coupling, and the CaP coatings were multicrystalline consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and precursors. CaP coating of CH3-terminated SAMs exhibited more excellent crystallization property as compared to coatings of —NH2 and —C(O)C groups. In vitro MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion and proliferation were performed. The results showed that CaP coatings on silane coupling functionalized surfaces supported cell adhesion and proliferation. Thus, these functional groups of silane coupling on Ti can form homogeneous and oriented nano-CaP coatings and provide a more biocompatible surface for bone regeneration and biomedical applications.